e. Automation of Instructional Functions. Many facets of the functions noted
above have been automated, thus unburdening the instructor. An additional value of
this automation is the standardization it provides. Among the more important
features of the CMS in terms of automating instructor function are the following:
(1) Demonstration maneuvers. Demonstration of maneuvers and problems for the
CPG in which previously recorded pilot data is played back is available.
(2) Autofly maneuvers. When operated in the independent mode, the CMS is
flown for the CPG through a prerecorded maneuver or series of maneuvers. This
enhances the role of the CMS by performing for the CPG trainee without the presence
o f the pilot.
(3) Ground-controlled approach (GCA). Proper GCA instructions based on the
simulated position are displayed on the IOS CRT. This enables the instructor to
simply read them, rather than having to interpret graphic displays.
(4) Trainee scoring and evaluation. Evaluation data is available to the
instructor from CRT displays and from direct observation of the trainees and their
instruments and indicators.
f . B r i e f i n g . Briefings prior to training missions are live. In this manner,
the trainees are provided with an up-to-date report of what is expected through-
out the mission. Also, any unclear areas of the operation can be resolved with a
question-and-answer session prior to beginning.
g. Critique. While a critique of trainee performance after a training exercise
is not automated, it can be based on a comprehensive and standardized set of
c r i t e r i a . The critique is aided by the available hardcopy records of trainee
performance. Such pictures are often worth the proverbial thousand words of
instructor comment. A learning feature that can be most useful in critiquing is
the 15-second to 5-minute dynamic playback of trainee performance. This can be
accomplished either in real-time or in slow-time. Another function is the hardcopy
print of graphic displays available at instructor discretion.
h. Cueinq. Cueing is sometimes defined as the provision of stimuli, usually of
a secondary or faint nature, that guide the trainee to the correct response. Such
cueing, sometimes called prompting, is of considerable value in programmed instruc-
tion. Application of prompts, or cues, are gradually withdrawn or faded as learn-
ing progresses. Cueing has a somewhat different meaning in the context of the